Overview of nanoparticle effects (Homo sapiens)

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10, 16Acute lung effects: hypercoagulation, hypofibrinolysis, etc.Astrocytesdepletion in hepatocytesEndocytosisExocytosisPhagocytosisCoronary heart disease, plaques, DICDNA damageMitochondrial potentialGenotoxicity / CancerCell migrationCell death2, 4, 914, 191PI3KBlood coagulationAngiogenesisIl-6 signalingCytoskeletonNecrotopsisAutophagic cell deathProstaglandin IntegrinCell cycleNanoparticleDifferentiationC-reactive proteinP-cadherinNecrosisCOX2 (PTGS2)Oxidative stressFAK (PTK2)Cell adhesionCOX1 (PTGS1)Prostaglandin pathwayGlutathione ferritinActinMetallothioneinHMOX1TNF-a SignalingInflammationAKTApoptosisImmune systemup or down regulationDNA damage response15, 1612107177875, 673, 11132, 12fibronectincollagen IVNF-kBBaxIL-6Il-8Bcl-2TNF-acyclin D317laminin


This pathway is giving a summary of currently known nanoparticle effects on cells and organisms. Although there is currently no nanoparticle specific effect known, there is a cascade of effects triggered if cells or organisms are exposed to nanoparticles: The most abundantly observed event is oxidative stress which causes DNA damage, protein and lipid oxidation, and cell death. The mere overload of nanoparticles in the vesicular system lead to cytoskeleton and cell adhesion problems and interfere with the cells autophagic system. Some specific nanoparticles are reported to interfere with the cell membrane, others stimulate the blood coagulation system. The release of metal ions from specific nanoparticles challenges the metal disposal system of the cell.

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121705view04:38, 26 February 2022EweitzUse gene symbol
118405view14:13, 27 May 2021Mkutmonfix publication refs
113822view16:55, 28 November 2020EgonwChanged to use rounded rectangles
110681view13:07, 28 May 2020Fehrhartgave nanoparticle a class and ID
107141view14:22, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
89371view06:15, 10 September 2016EgonwConnected lines.
88835view13:18, 15 August 2016Fehrhartconnecting unconnected lines
88266view14:32, 1 August 2016FehrhartOntology Term : 'nanomaterial response pathway' added !
87252view13:14, 20 July 2016LindarieswijkChanged necroptosis instead of necrotopsis
84570view12:23, 3 March 2016Mkutmonfix literature references
84569view12:18, 3 March 2016Mkutmonadded missing graph ids
82926view12:57, 13 November 2015FehrhartAdded identifiers (now complete, except nanoparticle)
82925view12:51, 13 November 2015FehrhartAdded identifiers
82924view10:27, 13 November 2015FehrhartAdded identifiers
80967view11:41, 6 July 2015MkutmonModified title
80961view12:25, 2 July 2015FehrhartModified description
80960view12:20, 2 July 2015FehrhartNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AKTGeneProductENSG00000117020 (Ensembl)
ActinGeneProductPF00022 (Pfam)
AngiogenesisPathwayWP1539 (WikiPathways)
ApoptosisPathwayWP2507 (WikiPathways)
Autophagic cell deathPathwayWP2509 (WikiPathways)
BaxGeneProductENSG00000087088 (Ensembl)
Bcl-2GeneProductENSG00000171791 (Ensembl)
Blood coagulationPathwayWP558 (WikiPathways)
C-reactive proteinGeneProductENSG00000132693 (Ensembl)
COX1 (PTGS1)GeneProductENSG00000095303 (Ensembl)
COX2 (PTGS2)GeneProductENSG00000073756 (Ensembl)
Cell adhesionPathwayWP306 (WikiPathways)
Cell cyclePathwayWP179 (WikiPathways)
CytoskeletonPathwayWP51 (WikiPathways)
DNA damage responsePathwayWP707 (WikiPathways)
DifferentiationPathwayWP2848 (WikiPathways)
FAK (PTK2)GeneProductENSG00000169398 (Ensembl)
Glutathione Metabolite16856 (ChEBI)
HMOX1GeneProductENSG00000100292 (Ensembl)
IL-6GeneProductENSG00000136244 (Ensembl)
Il-6 signalingPathwayWP364 (WikiPathways)
Il-8GeneProductENSG00000169429 (Ensembl)
Immune system up or down regulationPathwayWP2783 (WikiPathways)
InflammationPathwayWP453 (WikiPathways)
IntegrinGeneProductENSG00000156886 (Ensembl)
MetallothioneinGeneProductPF00131 (Pfam)
NF-kBGeneProductENSG00000170322 (Ensembl)
NecrosisPathwayWP2513 (WikiPathways)
NecrotopsisPathwayWP2513 (WikiPathways)
Oxidative stressPathwayWP408 (WikiPathways)
P-cadherinGeneProductENSG00000062038 (Ensembl)
PI3KGeneProductENSG00000171608 (Ensembl)
Prostaglandin MetaboliteCHEBI:26333 (ChEBI)
Prostaglandin pathwayPathwayWP98 (WikiPathways)
TNF-a SignalingPathwayWP231 (WikiPathways)
TNF-aGeneProductENSG00000232810 (Ensembl)
collagen IVGeneProductENSG00000187498 (Ensembl)
cyclin D3GeneProductENSG00000112576 (Ensembl)
ferritinGeneProductPF00210 (Pfam)
fibronectinGeneProductENSG00000115414 (Ensembl)
lamininGeneProductENSG00000053747 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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