Glycogen metabolism (Canis familiaris)

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DegradationSynthesisPhosphorylase KinaseGlycolysisSer/Thr Protein Phosphatase 2APPP2R5AGBE1UGP2PPP2CAGlycogen (n+1)GSK3BGYG1PGM1PPP2R5EGlucose 1-phosphatePYGMGlycogenPYGLPPP2R3APHKBPHKG1PHKA2PPP2R4Glucose-1-phosphatePPP2R2CGYS1GYS2GYG2PPP2R2BPPP2R5BGSK3ACALM3Glucose-6-phosphateUDP-glucosePHKG2CALM2Glycogen (n+1)GlucoseGlycogenPYGBPPP2R1BUGP2PPP2R3BCALM1PPP2R2APHKA1AGLcAMPPPP2R5CPPP2R1APPP2R5DPPP2CB


Glycogen is a very large, branched polymer of glucose residues. Within skeletal muscle and liver glucose is stored as glycogen. In the liver, glycogen synthesis and degradation are regulated to maintain blood-glucose levels as required to meet the needs of the organism as a whole. In contrast, in muscle, these processes are regulated to meet the energy needs of the muscle itself.

Glycogen synthesis is, unlike its breakdown, endergonic. This means that glycogen synthesis requires the input of energy. Energy for glycogen synthesis comes from UTP, which reacts with glucose-1-phosphate, forming UDP-glucose, in reaction catalyzed by UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. Glycogen is synthesized from monomers of UDP-glucose by the enzyme glycogen synthase, which progressively lengthens the glycogen chain with (a1->4) bonded glucose. As glycogen synthase can only lengthen an existing chain, the protein glycogenin is needed to initiate the synthesis of glycogen. The glycogen-branching enzyme, amylo (a1->4) to (a1->6) transglycosylase, catalyzes the transfer of a terminal fragment of 6-7 glucose residues from a nonreducing end to the C-6 hydroxyl group of a glucose residue deeper into the interior of the glycogen molecule. The branching enzyme can act upon only a branch having at least 11 residues, and the enzyme may transfer to the same glucose chain or adjacent glucose chains.

Glycogen degradation consists of three steps: (1) the release of glucose 1-phosphate from glycogen, (2) the remodeling of the glycogen substrate to permit further degradation, and (3) the conversion of glucose 1-phosphate into glucose 6-phosphate for further metabolism.

Information partly derived from "Biochemistry" by Stryer and Wikipedia.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP500(r21730) with a 75% conversion rate.

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117452view10:54, 21 May 2021EweitzModified title
106061view11:57, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
89810view11:47, 6 October 2016Mkutmonfixed description
71971view00:16, 24 October 2013MaintBotremoved data source from nodes without identifier
70010view23:39, 11 July 2013MaintBotupdated to 2013 schema
67303view10:34, 26 June 2013Christine ChichesterOntology Term : 'glycogen metabolic pathway' added !
40683view21:50, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35733view23:41, 12 February 2010AlexanderPico
33972view18:28, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
31799view12:18, 14 August 2009MaintBotFixed group labels
30758view23:11, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AGLGeneProduct479931 (Entrez Gene)
CALM1GeneProduct480416 (Entrez Gene)
CALM2GeneProduct474584 (Entrez Gene)
CALM3GeneProduct476428 (Entrez Gene)
GBE1GeneProduct478380 (Entrez Gene)
GSK3AGeneProduct484476 (Entrez Gene)
GSK3BGeneProduct478575 (Entrez Gene)
GYG1GeneProduct611614 (Entrez Gene)
GYG2GeneProduct491717 (Entrez Gene)
GYS2GeneProduct403737 (Entrez Gene)
Glucose 1-phosphateMetaboliteHMDB0001586 (HMDB)
Glycogen (n+1)Metabolite
PGM1GeneProduct479545 (Entrez Gene)
PHKA1GeneProduct491956 (Entrez Gene)
PHKA2GeneProduct480857 (Entrez Gene)
PHKBGeneProduct478139 (Entrez Gene)
PHKG1GeneProduct489784 (Entrez Gene)
PHKG2GeneProduct607275 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2CAGeneProduct403608 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2CBGeneProduct482873 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R1AGeneProduct484335 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R1BGeneProduct479444 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R2AGeneProduct477374 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R2BGeneProduct478053 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R2CGeneProduct610262 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R3AGeneProduct485672 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R3BGeneProduct607103 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R4GeneProduct491303 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R5AGeneProduct490280 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R5BGeneProduct483755 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R5CGeneProduct480436 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R5DGeneProduct481806 (Entrez Gene)
PPP2R5EGeneProduct480349 (Entrez Gene)
PYGBGeneProduct477003 (Entrez Gene)
PYGLGeneProduct403738 (Entrez Gene)
PYGMGeneProduct611078 (Entrez Gene)
UDP-glucoseMetaboliteHMDB0000286 (HMDB)
UGP2GeneProduct474615 (Entrez Gene)
cAMPMetaboliteHMDB0000058 (HMDB)

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