Glioblastoma signaling (Homo sapiens)

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The most frequently altered genes in glioblastoma. This pathway originally accompanied the 2008 Nature publication on the comprehensive genomic characterization of human glioblastoma genes and core pathways by TCGA, The Cancer Genome Atlas (see Bibliography). Assembled from literature and public pathway database resources, this representation can easily be kept up to date at

Sources: cBio Cancer Genomics Portal

Proteins on this pathway have targeted assays available via the CPTAC Assay Portal

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  1. Kwak HJ, Kim YJ, Chun KR, Woo YM, Park SJ, Jeong JA, Jo SH, Kim TH, Min HS, Chae JS, Choi EJ, Kim G, Shin SH, Gwak HS, Kim SK, Hong EK, Lee GK, Choi KH, Kim JH, Yoo H, Park JB, Lee SH; ''Downregulation of Spry2 by miR-21 triggers malignancy in human gliomas.''; Oncogene, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Huang TH, Wu F, Loeb GB, Hsu R, Heidersbach A, Brincat A, Horiuchi D, Lebbink RJ, Mo YY, Goga A, McManus MT; ''Up-regulation of miR-21 by HER2/neu signaling promotes cell invasion.''; J Biol Chem, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Valeri N, Gasparini P, Braconi C, Paone A, Lovat F, Fabbri M, Sumani KM, Alder H, Amadori D, Patel T, Nuovo GJ, Fishel R, Croce CM; ''MicroRNA-21 induces resistance to 5-fluorouracil by down-regulating human DNA MutS homolog 2 (hMSH2).''; Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Zhou X, Ren Y, Moore L, Mei M, You Y, Xu P, Wang B, Wang G, Jia Z, Pu P, Zhang W, Kang C; ''Downregulation of miR-21 inhibits EGFR pathway and suppresses the growth of human glioblastoma cells independent of PTEN status.''; Lab Invest, 2010 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. Liu X, Zhang Z, Sun L, Chai N, Tang S, Jin J, Hu H, Nie Y, Wang X, Wu K, Jin H, Fan D; ''MicroRNA-499-5p promotes cellular invasion and tumor metastasis in colorectal cancer by targeting FOXO4 and PDCD4.''; Carcinogenesis, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. ''Comprehensive genomic characterization defines human glioblastoma genes and core pathways.''; Nature, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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129752view01:58, 22 May 2024EweitzModified title
128529view15:10, 11 February 2024EweitzStandardize node shapes, case
123065view04:09, 23 June 2022EgonwMade a pathway clickable
118379view13:53, 27 May 2021Mkutmonfix publication refs
116594view16:32, 8 May 2021EweitzModified title
108196view10:57, 29 November 2019FehrhartOntology Term : 'cancer' added !
107126view14:20, 17 September 2019MaintBotChEBI identifier normalization
106481view19:47, 3 September 2019KhanspersModified description
105815view22:56, 15 August 2019KhanspersModified description
98349view22:24, 23 August 2018AlexanderPicoUpdated datasource for apopotosis pathway node
98341view19:54, 23 August 2018Elisson nlApoptosis Reference
98335view12:29, 23 August 2018EgonwUpdated the MIR21 identifier.
89520view11:01, 16 September 2016Mkutmonontology tag fix
89471view13:39, 15 September 2016Mkutmonremove space from ontology term id
81197view14:02, 3 August 2015Mkutmonfixed unconnected lines
80204view20:48, 22 May 2015Khanspersupdated miRNA targeting
80163view21:16, 14 May 2015Khanspersconnected lines
80162view21:14, 14 May 2015KhanspersAdded mir499a targeting of FOXO4
79879view11:46, 23 April 2015Mkutmonuse labels and graphical lines in legends
78522view10:29, 7 January 2015MaintBotadded missing graphIds
71372view18:38, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
70632view00:27, 20 August 2013MaintBotUpdated xrefs by Anatoly Urisman
68941view17:35, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67648view11:44, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'glioma pathway' added !
59136view22:37, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
50387view21:08, 14 August 2012MaintBotminor
50386view21:05, 14 August 2012MaintBotminor
50385view21:04, 14 August 2012MaintBotadjusted legend labels
50172view21:26, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoModified description
50171view21:19, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoModified categories
50170view21:18, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'FGF signaling pathway' added !
50169view21:18, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'epidermal growth factor/neuregulin signaling pathway' added !
50168view21:17, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway' added !
50167view21:16, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'p53 signaling pathway' added !
50166view21:16, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class II signaling pathway' added !
50165view21:16, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase class I signaling pathway' added !
50164view21:13, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'the extracellular signal-regulated Raf/Mek/Erk signaling pathway' added !
50163view21:12, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'Arf family mediated signaling pathway' added !
50162view21:12, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'brain cancer' added !
50161view21:11, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'glioblast' added !
50160view21:11, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoOntology Term : 'glioblastoma' added !
50159view21:10, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoAdded color. Done!
50158view21:02, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicofixed legend
50157view20:55, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicoAdded Legend
50156view20:39, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicominor reorganization
50155view20:32, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicodraft 1 complete
50154view20:20, 8 August 2012AlexanderPicofinishing touches...
50109view21:28, 7 August 2012AlexanderPicodatanode complete!
50108view21:26, 7 August 2012AlexanderPicoPeriodical save, work in progress
50107view20:56, 7 August 2012AlexanderPicoPeriodical save, work in progress

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AKT1GeneProductENSG00000142208 (Ensembl)
AKT2GeneProductENSG00000105221 (Ensembl)
AKT3GeneProductENSG00000117020 (Ensembl)
ARAFGeneProductENSG00000078061 (Ensembl)
ARFGeneProductENSG00000147889 (Ensembl)
ATMGeneProductENSG00000149311 (Ensembl)
ApoptosisPathwayWP254 (WikiPathways)
BRAFGeneProductENSG00000157764 (Ensembl)
BRCA1GeneProductENSG00000012048 (Ensembl)
BRCA2GeneProductENSG00000139618 (Ensembl)
CBLGeneProductENSG00000110395 (Ensembl)
CCND1GeneProductENSG00000110092 (Ensembl)
CCND2GeneProductENSG00000118971 (Ensembl)
CCNE1GeneProductENSG00000105173 (Ensembl)
CDK2GeneProductENSG00000123374 (Ensembl)
CDK4GeneProductENSG00000135446 (Ensembl)
CDK6GeneProductENSG00000105810 (Ensembl)
CDKN1AGeneProductENSG00000124762 (Ensembl)
CDKN1BGeneProductENSG00000111276 (Ensembl)
CDKN2BGeneProductENSG00000147883 (Ensembl)
CDKN2CGeneProductENSG00000123080 (Ensembl)
Cell cycle progressionPathway
Cell migrationPathway
Cell survivalPathway
DNA repairPathway
E2F1GeneProductENSG00000101412 (Ensembl)
EGFRGeneProductENSG00000146648 (Ensembl)
EP300GeneProductENSG00000100393 (Ensembl)
ERBB2GeneProductENSG00000141736 (Ensembl)
ERBB3GeneProductENSG00000065361 (Ensembl)
ERRFI1GeneProductENSG00000116285 (Ensembl)
FGFR1GeneProductENSG00000077782 (Ensembl)
FGFR2GeneProductENSG00000066468 (Ensembl)
FOXO1GeneProductENSG00000150907 (Ensembl)
FOXO3GeneProductENSG00000118689 (Ensembl)
FOXO4GeneProductENSG00000184481 (Ensembl)
G1/S progressionPathway
G2/M arrestPathway
GAB1GeneProductENSG00000109458 (Ensembl)
GRB2GeneProductENSG00000177885 (Ensembl)
HRASGeneProductENSG00000174775 (Ensembl)
IGF1RGeneProductENSG00000140443 (Ensembl)
IRS1GeneProductENSG00000169047 (Ensembl)
KRASGeneProductENSG00000133703 (Ensembl)
LPAMetaboliteCHEBI:52288 (ChEBI)
MAP2K1GeneProductENSG00000169032 (Ensembl)
MAP2K2GeneProductENSG00000126934 (Ensembl)
MAP2K3GeneProductENSG00000034152 (Ensembl)
MAP2K4GeneProductENSG00000065559 (Ensembl)
MAP2K5GeneProductENSG00000137764 (Ensembl)
MAP2K6GeneProductENSG00000108984 (Ensembl)
MAP2K7GeneProductENSG00000076984 (Ensembl)
MAPK1GeneProductENSG00000100030 (Ensembl)
MAPK3GeneProductENSG00000102882 (Ensembl)
MDM2GeneProductENSG00000135679 (Ensembl)
MDM4GeneProductENSG00000198625 (Ensembl)
METGeneProductENSG00000105976 (Ensembl)
MIR21RnaENSG00000284190 (Ensembl)
MSH6GeneProductENSG00000116062 (Ensembl)
NF1GeneProductENSG00000196712 (Ensembl)
NRASGeneProductENSG00000213281 (Ensembl)
P16GeneProductENSG00000147889 (Ensembl)
PDGFRAGeneProductENSG00000134853 (Ensembl)
PDGFRBGeneProductENSG00000113721 (Ensembl)
PDPK1GeneProductENSG00000140992 (Ensembl)
PI(3)PMetaboliteCHEBI:26034 (ChEBI)
PIK3C2AGeneProductENSG00000011405 (Ensembl)
PIK3C2BGeneProductENSG00000133056 (Ensembl)
PIK3C2GGeneProductENSG00000139144 (Ensembl)
PIK3CAGeneProductENSG00000121879 (Ensembl)
PIK3CBGeneProductENSG00000051382 (Ensembl)
PIK3CDGeneProductENSG00000171608 (Ensembl)
PIK3CGGeneProductENSG00000105851 (Ensembl)
PIK3R1GeneProductENSG00000145675 (Ensembl)
PIK3R2GeneProductENSG00000105647 (Ensembl)
PIP3MetaboliteCHEBI:16618 (ChEBI)
PLCG1GeneProductENSG00000124181 (Ensembl)
PLCG2GeneProductENSG00000197943 (Ensembl)
PRKCAGeneProductENSG00000154229 (Ensembl)
PRKCBGeneProductENSG00000166501 (Ensembl)
PRKCDGeneProductENSG00000163932 (Ensembl)
PRKCGGeneProductENSG00000126583 (Ensembl)
PRKCHGeneProductENSG00000027075 (Ensembl)
PRKCIGeneProductENSG00000163558 (Ensembl)
PRKCQGeneProductENSG00000065675 (Ensembl)
PRKCZGeneProductENSG00000067606 (Ensembl)
PTENGeneProductENSG00000171862 (Ensembl)
RAF1GeneProductENSG00000132155 (Ensembl)
RB1GeneProductENSG00000139687 (Ensembl)
SPRY2GeneProductENSG00000136158 (Ensembl)
SRCGeneProductENSG00000197122 (Ensembl)
TP53GeneProductENSG00000141510 (Ensembl)
TSC1GeneProductENSG00000165699 (Ensembl)
TSC2GeneProductENSG00000103197 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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