Thyroxine (thyroid hormone) production (Bos taurus)

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1Iodination of tyrosineHypothalamusmono- anddi-iodotyrosinesSpontaneouscrosslinkingTriiodothyronine (T3)CGA127 IodideTRHTSHRSLC5A5131 IodideTGThyroidperoxidase2L-TyrosineThyroxine (T4)Anterior pituitaryThyroid131 Iodide127 Iodide


Thyroxine hormone is produced in the thyroid gland from tyrosine and iodine. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is produced by the hypothalamus. It stimulates the production of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the anterior pituitary gland, which affects the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR). Iodine is captured by a hydrogen peroxide trap procuced by thyroid peroxidase and added to the 3' and 5' postitions of tyrosine. This can either be free tyrosine or a tyrosine residue in thyroglobuline. After the multiple iodination steps this produces T3 and T4.

The production of the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4),tri-iodothyronine (T3) and reverse T3 (rT3) is dependent on the organification of iodine into thyroglobulin (Tg), the major protein product of the thyroid (2). This involves thyroid peroxidase catalyzed iodination of tyrosine residues in Tg to form mono- and di-iodotyrosines and their subsequent crosslinking to form the iodothyronines T3 and T4.

Iodine 131 is an important radioactive fallout product. It was released in the atmosphere after nuclear tests and after nuclear incidents like at Tchernobyl and Fukushima. Since the iodine is concentrated in the thyroid glant as a substrate for the process described here non-radioactive iodine 127 is given as competitor to people exposed.


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP1981_96314 with a 83.0% conversion rate.

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  1. Ron E, Lubin JH, Shore RE, Mabuchi K, Modan B, Pottern LM, Schneider AB, Tucker MA, Boice JD Jr; ''Thyroid cancer after exposure to external radiation: a pooled analysis of seven studies.''; Radiat Res, 1995 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Van Herle, A.J ., G. Vassart, J.E . Dumont; ''Control of thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion''; N. Engl. J. Med. 301:239, 1979 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


View all...
117624view11:43, 21 May 2021EweitzModified title
105952view11:48, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
96315view09:05, 8 March 2018MkutmonUpdated homology conversion
85868view10:15, 19 June 2016EgonwReplaced a mim-conversion with Arrow.
80863view15:29, 30 June 2015MkutmonNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
127 IodideMetaboliteHMDB0012238 (HMDB)
131 IodideMetabolite167195 (PubChem-compound)
CGAGeneProductENSBTAG00000016138 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:1081
L-TyrosineMetaboliteHMDB0000158 (HMDB)
SLC5A5GeneProductENSBTAG00000015830 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:6528
TGGeneProductENSBTAG00000007823 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7038
TRHGeneProductENSBTAG00000005306 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7200
TSHRGeneProductENSBTAG00000017489 (Ensembl) Homology Mapping from Homo sapiens to Bos taurus: Original ID = L:7253
Thyroidperoxidase GeneProductNo homologues found for original id L:7173
Thyroxine (T4)MetaboliteHMDB0000248 (HMDB)
Triiodothyronine (T3)Metabolite5707 (Chemspider)

Annotated Interactions

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