Synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies (Rattus norvegicus)

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1Fatty acid metabolismGlycolysisFatty acid beta-oxidation(HMG-CoA cycle)* pathway-regulated enzymes: HMG-CoA synthase, mtPyruvate metabolismSterol biosynthesis3-Hydroxybutyric acidAcat1HmgclHmgcs2Acetoacetyl-CoAAcetyl-CoABdh1Acetyl-CoA3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoAOxct1Acetoacetic acid


Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver and kidney. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting. Source: Wikipedia


This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP311(r21335) with a 55% conversion rate.

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  1. Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA; ''Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry.''; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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117020view11:36, 16 May 2021EweitzModified title
106980view13:43, 17 September 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
105001view04:51, 28 June 2019Khanspersremoved KEGG comments
69425view19:03, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67676view11:48, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'ketone bodies metabolic pathway' added !
60203view15:36, 14 March 2013SusanAdd metabolites id
48271view23:16, 17 May 2012KhanspersUpdating PubChem xrefs
48259view21:58, 17 May 2012MaintBotAutomatic update of PubChem xrefs
41748view02:40, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35391view09:37, 12 February 2010Thomasfixed connections
35365view09:14, 12 February 2010Thomasfixed metabolite annotations
35360view09:10, 12 February 2010ThomasModified description
35357view09:08, 12 February 2010Thomasadded literature
34119view19:26, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
30962view00:46, 30 July 2009MaintBotConverted from Homo sapiens
21411view11:31, 14 November 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Rattus norvegicus:Synthesis and Degradation of Ketone Bodies KEGG]] moved to [[Pathway:WP349]]: Moved to stable identifier
8424view13:46, 7 January 2008MaintBot[[Pathway:Rat:Synthesis and Degradation of Ketone Bodies KEGG]] moved to [[Pathway:Rattus norvegicus:Synthesis and Degradation of Ketone Bodies KEGG]]: Renaming species
7829view16:20, 18 December 2007MaintBotfixed category names
7403view12:42, 4 November 2007MaintBotAdded categories to GPML
6599view22:20, 22 May 2007N.Reyesgpml file for [[Rat:Synthesis_and_Degradation_of_Ketone_Bodies_KEGG]]

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoAMetabolite1553-55-5 (CAS)
3-Hydroxybutyric acidMetaboliteHMDB0000357 (HMDB)
Acat1GeneProduct25014 (Entrez Gene)
Acetoacetic acidMetaboliteHMDB0000060 (HMDB)
Acetoacetyl-CoAMetabolite1420-36-6 (CAS)
Acetyl-CoAMetabolite72-89-9 (CAS)
Bdh1GeneProduct117099 (Entrez Gene)
HmgclGeneProduct79238 (Entrez Gene)
Hmgcs2GeneProduct24450 (Entrez Gene)
Oxct1GeneProduct690163 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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