Ketone bodies synthesis and degradation (Gallus gallus)

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1GlycolysisFatty acid beta-oxidationSterol biosynthesis* pathway-regulated enzymes: HMG-CoA synthase, mtFatty acid metabolism(HMG-CoA cycle)Pyruvate metabolismBDH1HMGCLACAT1Acetoacetyl-CoAOXCT1HMGCS2Acetoacetate3-Hydroxy-butyrateAcetyl-CoA3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoAAcetyl-CoA


Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver and kidney. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting. Source: Wikipedia


GenMAPP notes 
Ketogenesis (Human)
GenMAPP remarks 
Adapted from KEGG
This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP311(r21335) with a 55% conversion rate.

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  1. Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA; ''Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry.''; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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117187view10:25, 18 May 2021EweitzModified title
68818view17:16, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67679view11:48, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'ketone bodies metabolic pathway' added !
48306view04:21, 18 May 2012KhanspersUpdating PubChem xrefs
48304view04:19, 18 May 2012MaintBotAutomatic update of PubChem xrefs
40953view22:53, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35392view09:38, 12 February 2010Thomasfixed connections
35383view09:25, 12 February 2010Thomasadded literature, fixed metabolite xrefs
35376view09:17, 12 February 2010ThomasModified description
33880view17:53, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
30353view20:53, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoAMetabolite1553-55-5 (CAS)
3-Hydroxy-butyrateMetabolite441 (PubChem-compound)
ACAT1GeneProduct418968 (Entrez Gene)
AcetoacetateMetabolite6971017 (PubChem-compound)
Acetoacetyl-CoAMetabolite1420-36-6 (CAS)
Acetyl-CoAMetabolite72-89-9 (CAS)
BDH1GeneProduct424891 (Entrez Gene)
HMGCLGeneProduct396316 (Entrez Gene)
HMGCS2GeneProduct424380 (Entrez Gene)
OXCT1GeneProduct427190 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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