Ketone bodies synthesis and degradation (Pan troglodytes)

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1Sterol biosynthesisFatty acid metabolismPyruvate metabolismGlycolysis* pathway-regulated enzymes: HMG-CoA synthase, mtFatty acid beta-oxidation(HMG-CoA cycle)HMGCL3-Hydroxy-butyrateBDH1HMGCS2ACAT1AcetoacetateAcetyl-CoA3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoAAcetoacetyl-CoAAcetyl-CoAOXCT1


Ketone bodies are three water-soluble compounds that are produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver and kidney. They are used as a source of energy in the heart and brain. In the brain, they are a vital source of energy during fasting. Source: Wikipedia


GenMAPP notes 
Ketogenesis (Human)
GenMAPP remarks 
Adapted from KEGG
This pathway was inferred from Homo sapiens pathway WP311(r21335) with a 55% conversion rate.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Fukao T, Lopaschuk GD, Mitchell GA; ''Pathways and control of ketone body metabolism: on the fringe of lipid biochemistry.''; Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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117411view10:39, 21 May 2021EweitzModified title
76175view19:38, 15 June 2014Zhu.luyes
76174view19:34, 15 June 2014Zhu.lutest
69217view18:32, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
67680view11:48, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'ketone bodies metabolic pathway' added !
57487view22:04, 28 January 2013KhanspersChanged identifier for 3-Hydroxy-butyrate
57486view22:03, 28 January 2013KhanspersChanged identifier for 3-Hydroxy-butyrate
57155view13:46, 23 January 2013Egonw
41519view01:56, 2 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
35393view09:39, 12 February 2010Thomasfixed connections
35384view09:26, 12 February 2010Thomasadded literature, fixed metabolite references
35377view09:17, 12 February 2010ThomasModified description
34258view21:50, 9 December 2009MaintBotAutomatic update of empty xrefs
30467view21:31, 29 July 2009MaintBotNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoAMetabolite1553-55-5 (CAS)
3-Hydroxy-butyrateMetabolite441 (PubChem-compound)
ACAT1GeneProduct451528 (Entrez Gene)
AcetoacetateMetabolite6971017 (PubChem-compound)
Acetoacetyl-CoAMetabolite1420-36-6 (CAS)
Acetyl-CoAMetabolite72-89-9 (CAS)
BDH1GeneProduct460970 (Entrez Gene)
HMGCLGeneProduct456624 (Entrez Gene)
HMGCS2GeneProduct457169 (Entrez Gene)
OXCT1GeneProduct737468 (Entrez Gene)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions
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