Nanoparticle triggered regulated necrosis (Homo sapiens)

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1Lipid peroxidationMitochondriaDNA damageLysosomeNECROSOMELowered pHGlutaminolysiscPLA2TRADDCASP8Nec-1JNKNecroptosisPAMPsPARP1ATPTRIFRIPK1TNFR1ROSIronTNFCeramideSMasesFADDlipoxygenaseGe NPCalciumCalpainsArachidonic acid2RIPK3TLRsFerritinLabile iron poolGlycogenolysisGlycolysisIron


Programmed cell death: regulated necrosis. During regulated necrosis, different stimuli are recognized or sensed by specific receptors on the cell surface or inside cells. The activation of the necrosome stimulates different signaling pathways leading to mitochondrial hyperpolarization, lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cellular disintegration. A recent study revealed that germanium nanoparticles trigger necrostatin-1-inhibitable cell death with a reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential.

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Ontology Terms



  1. Andón FT, Fadeel B; ''Programmed Cell Death: Molecular Mechanisms and Implications for Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials.''; Acc Chem Res, 2012 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Ma YH, Huang CP, Tsai JS, Shen MY, Li YK, Lin LY; ''Water-soluble germanium nanoparticles cause necrotic cell death and the damage can be attenuated by blocking the transduction of necrotic signaling pathway.''; Toxicol Lett, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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119820view10:33, 28 August 2021EgonwMade a few pathways clickable
110691view13:47, 28 May 2020LaurentAdded missing DataNode types - added ID to Ge NP
106661view21:20, 12 September 2019KhanspersModified description
106207view12:10, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
105662view05:17, 10 August 2019KhanspersModified description
102135view09:25, 2 December 2018EgonwFixed the Uniprot ID of TNF.
102134view09:24, 2 December 2018EgonwReplaced Wikipedia with Wikidata identifiers.
97539view14:33, 24 May 2018EgonwFixed a character encoding issue.
97519view13:52, 24 May 2018Timverbruggenincrease mappings
97510view13:39, 24 May 2018Timverbruggenincreased mapping
92316view08:50, 20 May 2017EgonwOntology Term : 'nanomaterial response pathway' added !
86006view00:51, 24 June 2016Khansperschanged look of pathway nodes
86000view00:30, 24 June 2016KhanspersConnected interactions, updated xrefs, assigned node types
85999view00:22, 24 June 2016Khanspersconnected lines, changed gene nodes to pathway nodes where appropriate
85026view14:21, 6 April 2016Mkutmonremove special characters and add graphical annotations instead
81068view18:23, 19 July 2015EgonwTyped ceramide as metabolite.
81067view18:22, 19 July 2015EgonwUse a ChEBI identifier instead of a Wikipedia one.
77901view14:47, 28 October 2014Bart SmeetsModified description
77900view14:47, 28 October 2014Bart SmeetsModified description
77667view12:01, 5 October 2014EgonwReplaced 'Uniprot-SwissProt' by 'Uniprot-TrEMBL'.
74182view09:32, 3 April 2014Bart SmeetsAdded wiki entries
74143view10:31, 1 April 2014Bart SmeetsExpanded description of nanoparticles in pathway, added corresponding literature references.
73826view15:05, 25 February 2014Bart SmeetsFixed some wikipedia entries
73825view15:01, 25 February 2014Bart SmeetsAdded a few GeneIDs
71447view19:13, 17 October 2013MaintBotUpdated data sources
70991view20:50, 21 September 2013EgonwAdded a few identifiers.
68057view13:10, 29 June 2013EgonwCompleted the pathway as given in the figure.
68054view13:04, 29 June 2013EgonwPeriodical save, work in progress
66148view08:19, 15 June 2013EgonwAdded the literature ref again.
65706view12:26, 11 June 2013EgonwAdded the caspase 8 identifier, and widened the Necroptosis box.
65603view16:18, 10 June 2013EgonwMore content of the pathway.
65457view10:27, 8 June 2013EgonwOntology Term : 'necrosis pathway' added !
65447view08:02, 8 June 2013EgonwNew pathway

External references


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NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
ATPMetaboliteHMDB0001532 (HMDB)
Arachidonic acidMetaboliteHMDB0001043 (HMDB)
CASP8GeneProductENSG00000064012 (Ensembl)
CalciumMetaboliteHMDB0000464 (HMDB)
CeramideMetaboliteCHEBI:17761 (ChEBI)
FADDGeneProductENSG00000168040 (Ensembl)
FerritinProteinP02792 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
Ge NPMetaboliteCHEBI:30441 (ChEBI)
GlutaminolysisPathwayQ1532402 (Wikidata)
GlycogenolysisPathwayGlycogenolysis (WikiPathways)
GlycolysisPathwayGlycolysis (WikiPathways)
IronMetaboliteHMDB0000692 (HMDB)
JNKGeneProductENSG00000107643 (Ensembl)
Labile iron poolMetabolite
Nec-1Metabolite2828334 (PubChem-compound)
PARP1GeneProductENSG00000143799 (Ensembl)
RIPK1GeneProductENSG00000137275 (Ensembl)
RIPK3GeneProductENSG00000129465 (Ensembl)
ROSMetaboliteCHEBI:26523 (ChEBI)
SMasesProteinQ413230 (Wikidata)
TLRsProteinToll-like_receptor (Ensembl)
TNFProteinP01375 (Uniprot-TrEMBL)
TNFR1GeneProductENSG00000067182 (Ensembl)
TRADDGeneProductENSG00000102871 (Ensembl)
TRIFGeneProductENSG00000127666 (Ensembl)
cPLA2GeneProductENSG00000116711 (Ensembl)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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