Role of carnosine in muscle contraction (Homo sapiens)

From WikiPathways

Jump to: navigation, search
1, 21(Working) Muscle CellcarnosinaseCarnosineCarnosinasebeta-alaninecarnosine synthetase5, 62, 8Carcinine7histamineHistidineCarnosineOphidineAnserineAcetylAnserineAcetylcarnosine33HomocarnosineHomoanserinegamma-aminobutyric acid4


Carnosine is known to be an antioxidant, a metal chelator, a Ca(2+) and enzyme regulator. It also functions as an inhibitor of protein glycosylation and protein-protein cross-linking. Carnosine has also been linked to overcoming muscle fatigue, and can only be transported into a working muscle cell. This pathway shows the main metabolites of carnosine and their relationship with each other.

Try the New WikiPathways

View approved pathways at the new

Quality Tags

Ontology Terms



View all...
  1. Boldyrev AA, Severin SE; ''The histidine-containing dipeptides, carnosine and anserine: distribution, properties and biological significance.''; Adv Enzyme Regul, 1990 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Begum G, Cunliffe A, Leveritt M; ''Physiological role of carnosine in contracting muscle.''; Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. J.J. O'Dowd, D.J. Robins, D.J. Miller; ''Detection, characterization and quantification of carnosine and other histidyl derivatives in cardiac and skeletal muscle'';, 1988 DOI Scholia
  4. Dobrynina OV, Gorbunova AV; ''[Intensity of biosynthesis of anserine and carnosine by intact and denervated muscles in chickens].''; Biokhimiia, 1968 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. JF Lenney; ''Carnosinase and homocarnosinosis''; J. Oslo City Hospitals, 35, pp. 27-40, 1985 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Ferraris RP, Diamond J, Kwan WW; ''Dietary regulation of intestinal transport of the dipeptide carnosine.''; Am J Physiol, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Nagai K, Suda T; ''Realization of spontaneous healing function by carnosine.''; Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Pegova A, Abe H, Boldyrev A; ''Hydrolysis of carnosine and related compounds by mammalian carnosinases.''; Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol, 2000 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


View all...
119317view13:22, 23 June 2021FinterlyAdded DOI and PMID for Biopax
116500view10:36, 7 May 2021EweitzModified title
115684view19:20, 3 March 2021AlexanderPicoModified title
103721view15:59, 29 March 2019DeSlModified title
103134view19:36, 14 February 2019KhanspersModified description
102351view18:27, 20 December 2018EgonwFixed the data source.
102347view15:49, 20 December 2018DeSlAdded last ID for carnosine
102346view15:48, 20 December 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'muscle cell' added !
102345view15:47, 20 December 2018DeSlOntology Term : 'histidine degradation pathway' added !
102344view15:46, 20 December 2018DeSlModified description
102343view15:41, 20 December 2018DeSlAdded more lit. refs and transport of carnosine
102342view15:11, 20 December 2018DeSlAnnotated nodes, added reference for specific compounds location etc.
102341view14:55, 20 December 2018DeSlNew pathway

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
AcetylAnserineMetaboliteFound in Myocardial tissue
AcetylcarnosineMetaboliteQ4673297 (Wikidata) Found in Myocardial tissue
AnserineMetaboliteQ415335 (Wikidata)
CarcinineMetaboliteQ27892933 (Wikidata)
CarnosinaseProtein"present in many tissues (kidney, liver, plasma) with the exceptions of skeletal musculature"
CarnosineMetaboliteQ413822 (Wikidata)
HistidineMetaboliteQ485277 (Wikidata)
HomoanserineMetabolite20849429 (PubChem-compound)
HomocarnosineMetaboliteQ27158831 (Wikidata)
OphidineMetabolite90658938 (PubChem-compound) aka beta-alanyl-3-N-methylhistidine
beta-alanineMetaboliteQ310919 (Wikidata)
  • "Indispensable component of coenzyme A"
  • "Product of pyrimidine base degradation"
  • "Factor which stimulates collagen synthesis in tissues"
carnosinaseProtein3.4.13.3 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
  • Specific enzyme for carnosine breakdown (not specified in literature for which reaction).
  • "This enzyme is present in considerable quantity in many tissues (with the exception

    of skeletal musculature) and is especially abundant in the kidney, liver

    and blood plasma "
carnosine synthetaseProtein6.3.2.11 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
gamma-aminobutyric acidMetaboliteQ210021 (Wikidata)
histamineMetaboliteQ61233 (Wikidata)

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

Personal tools