Vitamin A and carotenoid metabolism (Homo sapiens)

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13-15Nuclear receptorsROL-binding proteinsRhodopsin formationDietRA-binding proteins11-cis binding proteinROL=retinol; RAL=retinaldehyde, RA = retinoic acid, RE = retinyl ester, RPE = retinal pigment epithelium chylomicronNucleusLiver/other organs?RE + dietary lipids?RE + dietary lipidsgap junction communicationEnterocyte?PPAR pathways?Cytochrome P450 familyRE + dietary lipidsBlood?Retinal pigment epithelium specific?Rdh5Bcmo1Adh4Beta-CryptoxanthinRXRgLycopeneLratCd36Abcg8Dhrs3Bcdo2Retinol dehydrogenasesSult1a1Lrat11-cis-RetinolRbp7LuteinAldh1a1Rbp2MAPK4-oxo-Retinoic acidall-transe 4-oxo RAScarb1LplBetacaroteneRlbp1Aldh1a311-cis-RetinalRbp4Rbp1Adh1all-trans Retinoic acidVitamin A acidRdh5ARATAldh1a3Vitamin D3Sult2b1BetacaroteneAwatCrabp1Crabp2Aldh1a2AstaxanthinRetinalVitamin A aldehydeCyp26b1RetsatBetacaroteneRXRaCyp26a113,14 dehydroretinalRetinyl esterAll-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolAldh1a2RXRbNpc1l1RARbRPE65Alpha-CaroteneViolaxanthinRdh12Scarb1CanthaxanthinRARaRARg9-cis-Retinoic acidZeaxanthinAldh1a1Betacaroteneall-trans RetinalRdh8Abcg59-cis-Retinol13,14 dehydro RAall-trans RetinolVitamin ABcmo1Rdh12Cyp2e1Retinyl esterRetinolVitamin Abeta 10' apocorotenalBcmo1Rdh109-cis-RetinalRetinolVitamin A1, 8, 9, 123, 4, 6, 7, 11...2, 55, 10, 16


This pathway is about carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism. The initial version was created by the NuGO focusteam on Carotenoid metabolism. It was used to test a text mining workflow which added some additional entities (see Waagmeester et al. 2009).

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  1. Waagmeester A, Pezik P, Coort S, Tourniaire F, Evelo C, Rebholz-Schuhmann D; ''Pathway enrichment based on text mining and its validation on carotenoid and vitamin A metabolism.''; OMICS, 2009 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  2. Bendich A, Olson JA; ''Biological actions of carotenoids.''; FASEB J, 1989 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  3. Huet F, Semama D, Maingueneau C, Charavel A, Nivelon JL; ''Vitamin A deficiency and nocturnal vision in teenagers with cystic fibrosis.''; Eur J Pediatr, 1997 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  4. Boosalis MG, Snowdon DA, Tully CL, Gross MD; ''Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.''; Nutrition, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  5. VandenLangenberg GM, Brady WE, Nebeling LC, Block G, Forman M, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Mares-Perlman JA; ''Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies.''; J Am Diet Assoc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  6. Sies H, Stahl W, Sundquist AR; ''Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids.''; Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  7. Ruhl CE, Everhart JE; ''Relation of elevated serum alanine aminotransferase activity with iron and antioxidant levels in the United States.''; Gastroenterology, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  8. Micozzi MS, Brown ED, Edwards BK, Bieri JG, Taylor PR, Khachik F, Beecher GR, Smith JC Jr; ''Plasma carotenoid response to chronic intake of selected foods and beta-carotene supplements in men.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  9. Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Smith JC Jr; ''Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma.''; Anal Chem, 1992 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  10. Sun Y, Ng L, Lam W, Lo CK, Chan PT, Yuen YL, Wong PF, Tsang DS, Cheung WT, Lee SS; ''Identification and characterization of a novel mouse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-regulated and starvation-induced gene, Ppsig.''; Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2008 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  11. Balmer JE, Blomhoff R; ''Gene expression regulation by retinoic acid.''; J Lipid Res, 2002 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  12. Czeczuga-Semeniuk E, Wolczynski S, Markiewicz W; ''Preliminary identification of carotenoids in malignant and benign neoplasms of the breast and surrounding fatty tissue.''; Neoplasma, 2003 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  13. Amir H, Karas M, Giat J, Danilenko M, Levy R, Yermiahu T, Levy J, Sharoni Y; ''Lycopene and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 cooperate in the inhibition of cell cycle progression and induction of differentiation in HL-60 leukemic cells.''; Nutr Cancer, 1999 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  14. Johansson S, Melhus H; ''Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man.''; J Bone Miner Res, 2001 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  15. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E; ''Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol.''; Am J Clin Nutr, 1994 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  16. Handelman GJ, Dratz EA, Reay CC, van Kuijk JG; ''Carotenoids in the human macula and whole retina.''; Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci, 1988 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  17. Hidiroglou M, Williams CJ; ''Interrelationships among liposoluble vitamins in ruminants.''; Am J Vet Res, 1986 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  18. Torma H, Rollman O, Binderup L, Michaelsson G; ''Vitamin D analogs affect the uptake and metabolism of retinol by human epidermal keratinocytes in culture.''; J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc, 1996 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  19. Moise AR, Kuksa V, Imanishi Y, Palczewski K; ''Identification of all-trans-retinol:all-trans-13,14-dihydroretinol saturase.''; J Biol Chem, 2004 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia
  20. Moise AR, Kuksa V, Blaner WS, Baehr W, Palczewski K; ''Metabolism and transactivation activity of 13,14-dihydroretinoic acid.''; J Biol Chem, 2005 PubMed Europe PMC Scholia


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134153view11:57, 15 July 2024EgonwMarked a few interactions as mim-translocation
128717view01:34, 21 February 2024EweitzOntology Term : 'enterocyte' added !
126219view15:04, 16 April 2023EgonwLicense is CCZero
124885view14:15, 22 December 2022Conroy lipidsadd missing identifiers, some Rhea, literature ref
124880view13:05, 20 December 2022Conroy lipidsadd missing metabolite identifier, begin conversion of arrows to mim-conversion, add some Rhea IDs to reactions
116512view10:46, 7 May 2021EweitzModified title
110181view14:27, 23 April 2020EgonwOntology Term : 'retinol metabolic pathway' added !
106146view12:04, 16 August 2019MaintBotHMDB identifier normalization
103270view12:37, 20 February 2019DeSlModified description
97560view07:17, 25 May 2018Fehrhartfixed connections
83589view10:59, 26 November 2015EgonwAdded a reference for the function of Retsat.
79968view15:43, 28 April 2015ZariChanged Enzyme ID to Entrez gene
74442view07:24, 20 April 2014EgonwFixed a PubMed ID.
71992view11:21, 24 October 2013MkutmonChanged Unknown -> GeneProduct for Scarb1
71370view18:37, 17 October 2013MaintBotAutomated update of data sources
70757view20:29, 5 September 2013MaintBotadded datanode Type to Sult1a1
70756view20:28, 5 September 2013MaintBotadded datanode Types for missing entries
70033view01:59, 12 July 2013AlexanderPicoModified title
68936view17:34, 8 July 2013MaintBotUpdated to 2013 gpml schema
68052view12:32, 29 June 2013EgonwFixed EC number data sources.
67744view11:57, 26 June 2013DdiglesOntology Term : 'vitamin A and metabolites signaling pathway' added !
59134view22:37, 21 February 2013MaintBotUpdated Ensembl and UniProt data source
52902view09:57, 24 October 2012AnweshaPeriodical save, work in progress
46094view03:31, 15 December 2011AlexanderPicoconverted hugo to ensembl
46090view02:28, 15 December 2011AllanKuchinskyupdated HGNC IDs
45017view18:32, 6 October 2011KhanspersOntology Term : 'metabolic pathway of cofactors and vitamins' added !
41087view23:21, 1 March 2011MaintBotRemoved redundant pathway information and comments
38841view17:39, 24 September 2010KhanspersChanged nucleus
38356view07:17, 2 September 2010ThomasReverted to version '11:08, 17 May 2010' by Thomas
38355view07:16, 2 September 2010ThomasPeriodical save, work in progress
37110view11:08, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connection
37109view11:07, 17 May 2010SusanAdd Awat2
37108view10:45, 17 May 2010SusanAdd Awat
37107view10:28, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connection
37106view10:21, 17 May 2010EveloCorrected typo in title
37105view10:19, 17 May 2010SusanAdd connections
37103view10:15, 17 May 2010EveloModified title and version date
36978view11:10, 14 May 2010Evelofinishing up
36977view11:07, 14 May 2010Evelofinishing up
36976view10:57, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36975view10:47, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36974view10:35, 14 May 2010EveloMetabolites and connectors
36973view10:32, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36972view10:21, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36971view10:11, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36970view10:01, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36969view09:50, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36968view09:40, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36967view09:30, 14 May 2010EveloPeriodical save, work in progress
36966view09:19, 14 May 2010EveloModified description

External references


View all...
NameTypeDatabase referenceComment
11-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB02152 (HMDB)
11-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB06216 (HMDB)
13,14 dehydro RAMetabolite
13,14 dehydroretinalMetabolite
4-oxo-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB06285 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinalMetaboliteHMDB06218 (HMDB)
9-cis-Retinoic acidMetaboliteHMDB02369 (HMDB)
9-cis-RetinolMetaboliteHMDB06217 (HMDB)
ARATProtein2.3.1.76 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Abcg564240 (Entrez Gene)
Abcg864241 (Entrez Gene)
Adh1GeneProduct124 (Entrez Gene)
Adh4GeneProduct127 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a1GeneProduct216 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a2GeneProduct8854 (Entrez Gene)
Aldh1a3220 (Entrez Gene)
All-trans-13,14-dihydroretinolMetaboliteHMDB11618 (HMDB)
Alpha-CaroteneMetaboliteHMDB03993 (HMDB)
AstaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02204 (HMDB)
AwatGeneProduct158835 (Entrez Gene)
Bcdo2GeneProduct83875 (Entrez Gene)
Bcmo1GeneProduct53630 (Entrez Gene)
Beta-CryptoxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02268 (HMDB)
BetacaroteneMetaboliteHMDB00561 (HMDB)
CanthaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB03154 (HMDB)
Cd36948 (Entrez Gene)
Crabp1GeneProduct1381 (Entrez Gene)
Crabp2GeneProduct1382 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26a11592 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp26b156603 (Entrez Gene)
Cyp2e11571 (Entrez Gene)
Dhrs3GeneProduct9249 (Entrez Gene)
Lpl4023 (Entrez Gene)
LratGeneProductENSG00000121207 (Ensembl)
LuteinMetaboliteHMDB03233 (HMDB)
LycopeneMetaboliteHMDB03000 (HMDB)
MAPKGeneProduct2.7.11.24 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Npc1l129881 (Entrez Gene)
RARa5914 (Entrez Gene)
RARb5915 (Entrez Gene)
RARg5916 (Entrez Gene)
RPE656121 (Entrez Gene)
RXRa6256 (Entrez Gene)
RXRb6257 (Entrez Gene)
RXRg6258 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp1GeneProduct5947 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp2GeneProduct5948 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp4GeneProduct5950 (Entrez Gene)
Rbp7GeneProduct116362 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh10157506 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh12145226 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh5GeneProduct5959 (Entrez Gene)
Rdh850700 (Entrez Gene)
Retinal Vitamin A aldehydeMetaboliteHMDB01358 (HMDB)
Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB00305 (HMDB)
Retinol dehydrogenasesGeneProduct1.1.1.105 (Enzyme Nomenclature)
Retinyl esterMetaboliteHMDB03598 (HMDB)
RetsatGeneProduct54884 (Entrez Gene)
Rlbp16017 (Entrez Gene)
Scarb1949 (Entrez Gene)
Sult1a16817 (Entrez Gene)
Sult2b16820 (Entrez Gene)
ViolaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB03101 (HMDB)
Vitamin D3MetaboliteHMDB00876 (HMDB)
ZeaxanthinMetaboliteHMDB02789 (HMDB)
all-trans RetinalMetaboliteHMDB01358 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinoic acid Vitamin A acidMetaboliteHMDB01852 (HMDB)
all-trans Retinol Vitamin AMetaboliteHMDB00305 (HMDB)
all-transe 4-oxo RAMetabolite
beta 10' apocorotenalMetabolite

Annotated Interactions

No annotated interactions

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